The Artisanal Vinegar Marker’s Handbook
- Making a mash – the foundation of homemade vinegar
- Vinegar fermentation (see also How to make vinegar – the online course and Learn making vinegar)
- Vinegar making equipment and measuring devices for making vinegar
- Additional flavors and aromas using the generator process
- Analyses for making vinegar at home
- Numerous vinegar making recipes for fermented vinegars and infused vinegars
Making a mash
How to make vinegar and obtain good quality? First you must make the perfect mash. The quality of the mash is the foundation for making vinegar. Using rotten and dirty fruit can never lead to high-quality vinegar. You will find precise guides and recipes to make mashes easily yourself, and you will find out everything about possible problems (infections, overoxidation, yeast film, etc.) during fermentation and the measures to counteract these.
You will find a detailed description for starting vinegar fermentation. How can you make a mother of vinegar yourself, or store an active mother? How do I start vinegar fermentation? What problems can arise, and how can I remedy them? Vinegar calculations of the required quantities of acid, alcohol, water and fermentation starter.
The vinegar equipment for making vinegar
Classic surface process and vinegar fermentation using the generator process. How does the optimum vinegar generator have to be setup correctly from a process technology perspective? What materials can I use? How do I construct or alternatively recognize functional equipment? Regardless of whether you would like to build the equipment yourself or buy it, here you can acquire the necessary know-how to end up with the perfect vinegar making equipment for your homemade vinegar.
Additional flavors and aromas from the packing material technique
Detailed description of the fermentation process to refine the vinegar during the fermentation process using additional fruit, herbs, etc. (raspberries, coffee, nuts, raisins, orange peel,…) or unfermented products such as asparagus, tomatoes etc..
Analysis for acetic acid and alcohol content
Learn the necessary analysis methods and vinegar calculations so you can analyze the alcohol and acetic acid content yourself at any time.
What is vinegar made of? Numerous recipes for homemade vinegar with precise information for fermented vinegars and infused vinegars. Discover how you can make the greatest variety of vinegars at home yourself.
Table of contents:
- Historical review
What is vinegar?
Chemical processes: How does vinegar form, vinegar bacteria, thermal balance
Types of vinegar: Fermented vinegar, infused vinegar, minimum acidity
- Microbiological processes for making vinegar
Surface processes: Orleans process, Pasteur process
Captive processes: Rolling generators, rotating generators, Boerhaave process, Schüzenbach’s quick vinegar process, generator processes (circulating or trickling generator), submerged processes
- Making vinegar yourself
- ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
Preparation of the mash, types of fruit and starchy products, treatment of the fruit, fermenting container, conventional mashes, high-grade mashes, starch mashes, checking the progress of the fermentation, end of fermentation, fermentation problems, filtration, storage, using finished wine/must/distillate
- VINEGAR FERMENTATION
Surface process: Simple vinegar fermentation (equipment and materials, performing simple fermentation), improved surface method (equipment and preparation, fermentation container and filling level, airflow, water bath, active vinegar culture, mother of vinegar, pasteurization, instructions for the surface process)
Generator process: Advantages of the generator process, basic assembly of the equipment (reactor, packing material, fermentation medium container), Schmickl vinegar generator, do it-yourself equipment, instructions for the generator process, pre-treatment of the filling material, acidification (acidification with living vinegar, acidification with fermentation starter, acidification with zeolites), starting the process,
Reactivating, multiplying and storing vinegar cultures: living vinegar, mother of vinegar, active filling material, freezing vinegar cultures
Fermentation problems, fungal contamination, unwanted smells, parasites: Fermentation problems, fungal contamination (yeast film, unwanted smells, pests (vinegar eels, vinegar flies, vinegar mites, etc.), alcohol issues, causes and remedies, overoxidation, slime accumulation
- ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
- Chemical analysis:
- DETERMINING THE ACETIC ACID CONTENT
Titration with burette (necessary equipment, titration instructions, taking readings from the burette), acidometer cylinder and blue caustic solution (equipment and instructions), hydrometer (vinegar spindle)
- DETERMINING THE ALCOHOL CONTENT
Alcohol content of a distillate: Hydrometer (alcoholmeter), refractometer, pycnometer
Alcohol content in the mash and in the vinegar: Vinometer, ebullioscope, alcohol measurement using the Rebelein method, photometric alcohol measurement, alcohol measurement using the Schmickl method (acidity determination, semi-micro distillation, alcohol determination), alcohol determination with a vinegar spindle) only for vinegar)
- COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT MEASUREMENT METHODS
- RELATIVE DENSITY MEASUREMENT METHODS
Vinegar spindle, alcoholmeter, Oechsle scale, Klosterneuburger must scale
- DETERMINING THE ACETIC ACID CONTENT
- Further treatment
Filtration, storage, refinement, carbon treatment, bottling, pasteurizing, dyeing and preserving
- FERMENTED VINEGAR
- Pineapple vinegar, apple vinegar, apricot vinegar, banana vinegar, beer vinegar, pear vinegar, blackberry vinegar, strawberry vinegar, fig vinegar, vegetable vinegar, grain vinegar, pomegranate vinegar, rose hip vinegar, raspberry vinegar, elderberry vinegar, currant vinegar (redcurrant vinegar), potato vinegar, cherry vinegar, cherry plum vinegar, greengage vinegar (greengage-plum vinegar), malt vinegar, mango vinegar, molasses vinegar, mead vinegar, mirabelle vinegar, medlar vinegar, whey vinegar, must vinegar, nut vinegar, peach vinegar, quince vinegar, rice vinegar, raisin vinegar, sloe vinegar, pomace vinegar, rowanberry vinegar, juniper vinegar, wine vinegar, sugar beet/sugar cane vinegar, prune plum vinegar, plum vinegar
- FERMENTED VINEGAR WITH AROMATIC FILLING MATERIAL
General instructions, fruit (fresh, berries, fruit with pits and cores), wood (beech, oak, etc.), coffee, herbs, hay flowers, coniferous wood (fir, spruce, Swiss pine, etc.), dried fruit, nuts, pumpkin seeds, juniper berries, cinnamon, citrus fruit (grapefruit, oranges, lemons, limes)
- BALSAMIC VINEGAR
Balsamic vinegar made of thickened fruit juice, balsamic vinegar made of high-grade mash
- INFUSED VINEGARS
Herb vinegar: Basil, wild garlic, savory, borage, dill, tarragon, fennel, nasturtium, chervil, coriander, lavender, lovage, marjoram, mint, oregano, parsley, salad burnet, rosemary, sage, chives, thyme, juniper, hyssop, lemongrass, lemon balm
Spice and aromatic vinegar: Essential oils, chili (tabasco sauce), spruce tips, elderflowers, honey, ginger, garlic, caraway, horseradish, oranges, cloves, peppers, hot peppers, pepper, roses, mustard seeds, dried fruit (apricots, figs, plums, raisins, etc.), violets, cinnamon, Swiss pine, lemons, onions
Aromatic fruit vinegar: Apples, apricots, pears, blackberries, cranberries, strawberries, figs, rose hip, blueberries, raspberries, currants, cherries, quinces, prune plums, plums, greengages, sloe mixtures
Aperitifs, digestifs, salads, appetizers (poached eggs, sautéed asparagus), soup (cold vegetable soup, pumpkin soup), main dishes (goulash, sweet and sour chicken), spreads (apple spread, tuna spread), desserts (strudel dough, vanilla ice cream salad), mustard, marinades, pickles.
- HOUSEHOLD ITEMS
Household disinfection, odor removal, weed killer, stain remover, de-scaler, mold removal, cleaning agents (sanitary area, washing machine, windows, mirrors, oven, dishwasher)
Wart removal, corns, weight loss, vinegar poultices for fevers, hemorrhoids, varicose veins, classic morning tonic, constipation, bruises and insect bites, hangovers, hiccups, colds (common cold, sore throat, cough, fever chills)
Hair tonic (hair loss, dandruff, lice), steam inhalation, facial toner, exfoliating scrub, skin blemishes, foot bath, bath additive
- Legal situation
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